Although, in modern physics,  many elementary particles are extremely short-lived, others such as protons are virtually immortal. But either way, a particle, while it does exist, is assumed to be continuously existing. And solid objects such as we see all around us like rocks and trees are also assumed to carry on being rocks and trees from start to finish even though they do undergo considerable changes in physical and chemical composition. What is out there is  always there when it’s out there, so to speak.
However, in Ultimate Event Theory (UET) the ‘natural’ tendency is for everything to flash in and out of existence and most ultimate events, the ‘atoms’ or elementary particles of  Eventrics,  disappear for ever leaving no trace and even with more precise instruments than we have at present, wouldshow up as a sort of faint permanent background ‘noise’, a ‘flicker of existence’. Certain ultimate events, those that have acquired persistence ─ we shall not for the moment ask how and why they acquire this property ─ are able to bring about, i.e. cause, their own re-appearance and eventually to constitute a repeating event-chain or causally bonded sequence. And some event-chains also have the capacity to bond to other event-chains, eventually  forming relatively persistent clusters that we know as matter.  All apparently solid objects are, according to the UET paradigm, conglomerates of repeating ultimate events that are bonded together ‘laterally’, i.e. within  the same ksana, and ‘vertically’, i.e. from one ksana to the next. And the cosmic glue is not gravity or any other of the four basic forces of contemporary physics but causality.

The Principle of Spatio/Temporal Continuity

Newtonian physics, likewise 18th and 19th century rationalism generally, assumes what I have referred to elsewhere as the Postulate of Spatio-temporal Continuity. This postulate or principle, though rarely explicitly  stated in philosophic or scientific works,  is actually one of the most important of the ideas associated with the Enlightenment and thus with the entire subsequent intellectual development of Western society (Note 1). In its simplest form, the principle says that an event occurring here, at a particular spot in Space-Time (to use the traditional term), cannot have an effect there, at a spot some distance away without having effects at all (or at least most or some) intermediate spots. The original event, as it were, sets up a chain reaction and a frequent image used is that of a whole row of upright dominoes falling over one after the other once the first has been pushed over. This is essentially how Newtonian physics views the action of a force on a body or system of bodies, whether the force in question is a contact force (push/pull) or a force acting at a distance like gravity ─ though in the latter case Newton was unable to provide a mechanical model of how such a force could be transmitted across apparently empty space.
As we envisage things today, a blow affects a solid object by making the intermolecular distances of the surface atoms contract a little and they pass on this effect to neighbouring atoms which in turn affect nearby objects they are in contact with or exert an increased pressure on the atmosphere, and so on. Moreover, although this aspect of the question is glossed over in Newtonian (and even modern) physics, each transmission of the original impulse  ‘takes time’ : the re-action is never instantaneous (except possibly in the case of gravity) but comes ‘a moment later’, more precisely at least one ksana later. This whole issue will be discussed in more detail later, but, within the context of the present discussion, the point to bear in mind is that,  according to Newtonian physics and rationalistic thought generally, there can be no leap-frogging with space and time. Indeed, it was because of the Principle of Spatio-temporal Continuity that most European scientists rejected out of hand Newton’s theory of universal attraction since, as Newton admitted, there seemed to be no way that a solid body such as   the Earth could affect another solid body such as the Moon thousands  of kilometres without affecting the empty space between. Even as late as the mid 19th century, Maxwell valiantly attempted to give a mechanical explanation of his own theory of electro-magnetism, and he did this essentially because of the widespread rock-hard belief in the principle of spatio-temporal continuity.

So, do I propose to take the principle over into UET? No, except possibly in special situations. If I did take over the principle, it would mean that certain regions of the Locality would soon get hopelessly clogged up with colliding event-chains. Indeed, if all the possible positions in between two spots where ultimate events belonging to the same chain had occurrence were occupied, event-chains would behave as if they were solid objects and one might as well just stick to normal physics. A further, and more serious, problem is that, if all event-chains were composed of events that repeated at every successive ksana, one would expect event-chains with the same ‘speed’ (space/time ratio with respect to some ‘stationary’ event-chain) to behave in the same way when confronted with an obstacle. Manifestly, this does not happen since, for example, photon event-chains behave very differently from neutrino event-chains even though both propagate at the same, or very similar, speeds.
One of the main reasons for elaborating a theory of events in the first place was my deep-rooted conviction ─ intuition if you like ─ that physical reality is discontinuous. I do not believe there is, or can be, such a thing as continuous motion, though there is and probably always will be succession and thus change since, even if nothing else is happening, one ksana is perpetually being replaced by another, different, one ─ “the moving finger writes, and, having writ, moves on” (Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam). Moreover, this movement is far from smooth : ‘time’ is not a river that flows at a steady rate as (Newton envisaged it) but a succession of ‘moments’, beads of different sizes threaded together to make a chain and with minute gaps between the beads which allow the thread that holds them together to become momentarily visible.
If, then, one abandons the postulate of Spatio-temporal Continuity, it becomes perfectly feasible for members of an event-chain to ‘miss out’ intermediate positions and so there most definitely can be ‘leap-frogging’ with space and time. Not only are apparently continuous phenomena discontinuous but one suspects that they have very different staccato rhythms.

‘Atomic’ Event Capsule model

 At this point it is appropriate to review the basic model.
I envisage each ultimate event as having occurrence at a particular spot on the Locality, a spot of negligible but not zero extent. Such spots, which receive (or can receive) ultimate events are the ‘kernels’ of much larger ‘event-capsules’ which are themselves stacked together in a three-dimensional lattice. I do not conceive of there being any appreciable gaps between neighbouring co-existing event-capsules : at any rate, if there are gaps they would seem to be very small and of no significance, essentially just demarcation lines. According to the present theory these spatial ‘event-capsules’ within which all ultimate events have occurrence cannot be extended or enlarged  ─ but they can be compressed. There is, nonetheless,  a limit to how far they can be squeezed because the kernels, the spots where ultimate events can and do occur, are incompressible.
I believe that time, that is to say succession, definitely exists; in consequence, not only ultimate events but the space capsules themselves, or rather the spots on the Locality where there could be ultimate events, appear and disappear just like everything else. The lattice framework, as it were, flicks on and off and it is ‘on’ for the duration of a ksana, the ultimate time interval (Note 2). When we have a ‘rest event-chain’ ─ and every event-chain is ‘at rest’ with respect to itself and an imaginary observer moving on or with it ─ the ksanas follow each other in close succession, i.e. are as nearly continuous as an intrinsically  discontinuous process can be.
According to the theory, the ‘size’ or ‘extent’ of a ksana cannot be reduced  ─ otherwise there would be little point in introducing the concept of a minimal temporal interval and we would be involved in infinite regress, the very thing which I intend to avoid at all costs. However, the distance between ksanas can, so it is suggested, be extended, or, more precisely, the distance between the successive kernels of the event capsules, where the ultimate events occur, can be extended. That is, there are gaps between events. As is explained in other posts, in UET the ‘Space/Time region’ occupied by the successive members of an event-chain remains the same irrespective of ‘states of motion’ or other distinguishing features. But the dimensions themselves can and do change. If the space-capsules contract, the time dimension must expand and this can only mean that the gaps between ksanas widen (since the extent of an ‘occupied’ ksana is cnstant. The more the space capsules contract, the more the gaps must increase (Note 3).  But, as with everything else in UET, there is a limiting value since the space capsules cannot contract beyond the spatial limits of the incompressible kernels. Note that this ‘Constant Region Principle’ only applies to causally related regions of space ─ roughly what students of SR view as ‘light cones’.

The third parameter of motion

 In traditional physics, when considering an object or body ‘in motion’, we essentially only need to specify two variables : spatial position and time. Considerations of momentum and so forth is only required because it affects future positions at future moments, and aids prediction. To specify an object’s ‘position in space’, it is customary in scientific work to relate the object’s position to an imaginary spot called the Origin where three mutually perpendicular axes meet. To specify the object’s position ‘in time’ we must show or deduce how many ‘units of time’ have elapsed since a chosen start position when t = 0. Essentially, there are only two parameters required, ‘space’ and ‘time’ : the fact that the first parameter requires (at least) three values is not, in the present context, significant.
Now, in UET we likewis need to specify an event’s position with regard to ‘space’ and ‘time’. I envisage the Event Locality at any ‘given moment’ as being composed of an indefinitely extendable set of ‘grid-positions’. Each ‘moment’ has the same duration and, if we label a particular ksana 0 (or 1) we can attach a (whole) number to an event subsequent to what happened when t = 0 (or rather k = 0). As anyone who has a little familiarity with the ideas of Special Relativity knows, the concept of an  ‘absolute present’ valid right across the universe is problematical to say the least. Nonetheless, we can talk of events occurring ‘at the same time’ locally, i.e. during or at the same ksana. (The question of how these different  ‘time zones’ interlock will be left aside for the moment.)
Just as in normal physics we can represent the trajectory of an ‘object’ by using three axes with the y axis representing time and, due to lack of space and dimension, we often squash the three spatial dimensions down to two, or, more simply still, use a single ‘space’ axis, x (Note 4). In normal physics the trajectory of an object moving with constant speed will be represented by a continuous vertical straight line and an object moving at constant non-zero speed relative to an object considered to be stationary will be represented by a slanting but nonetheless still straight line. Accelerated motion produces a ‘curve’ that is not straight. All this essentially carries over into UET except that, strictly, there should be no continuous lines at all but only dots that, if joined up, would form lines. Nonetheless, because the size of a ksana is so small relative to our very crude senses, it is usually acceptable to represent an ‘object’s’ trajectory as a continuous line. What is straight in normal physics will be straight in UET. But there is a third variable of motion in UET which has no equivalent in normal physics, namely an event’s re-appearance rhythm.
        Fairly early on, I came up against what seemed to be an insuperable difficulty with my nascent model of physical reality. In UET I make a distinction between an attainable ‘speed limit’ for an event-chain and an upper unatttainable limit, noting the first c * and the second c. This allows me to attribute a small mass ─ mass has not yet been defined in UET but this will come ─  to such ‘objects’ as photons. However, this distinction is not significant in the context of the present discussion and I shall  use the usual symbol c for either case. Now, it is notorious that different elementary particles (ultimate event chains) which apparently have the same (or very nearly identical) speeds do not behave in the same way when confronted with obstacles (large dense event clusters) that lie on their path. Whereas it is comparatively easy to block visible light and not all that difficult to block or at least muffle much more energetic gamma rays, it is almost impossible to stop a neutrino in its path, so much so that they are virtually undetectable. Incredible though it sounds, “about 400 billion neutrinos from the Sun pass through us every second” (Close, Particle Physics) but even state of the art detectors deep in the earth have a hard  job  detecting a single passing neutrino. Yet neutrinos travel at or close to the speed of light. So how is it that photons are so easy to block and neutrinos almost impossible to detect?
The answer, according to matter-based physics, is that the neutrino is not only very small and very fast moving but “does not feel any of the four physical Reappearance rates 2forces except to some extent the weak force”. But I want to see if I can derive an explanation without departing from the basic principles and concepts of Ultimate Event Theory. The problem in UET is not why the repeating event-pattern we label a neutrino passes through matter so easily ─ this is exactly what I would expect ─ but rather how and why it behaves so  differently from certain other elementary event-chains. Any ‘particle’, provided it is small enough and moves rapidly, is likely, according to the basic ideas of UET, to ‘pass through’ an obstacle just so long as the obstacle is not too large and not too dense. In UET, intervening spatial positions are simply skipped and anything that happens to be occupying these intermediate spatial positions will not in any way ‘notice’ the passing of the more rapidly moving ‘object’. On this count, however, two ‘particles’ moving at roughly the same speed (relative to the obstacle) should either both pass through an  obstacle or both collide with it.
But, as I eventually realized, this argument is only valid if the re-appearance rates of the two ‘particles’ are assumed to be the same. ‘Speed’ is nothing but a space/time ratio, so many spatial positions against so many ksanas. A particular event-chain has, say, a ‘space/time ratio’ of 8 grid-points per ksana. This means that the next event in the chain will have occurrence at the very next ksana exactly eight grid-spaces along relative to some regularly repeating event-chain considered to be stationary. On this count, it would seem impossible to have fractional rates and every ‘re-appearance rate’ would be a whole number : there would be no equivalent in UET of a speed of, say, 4/7 metres per second since grid-spaces are indivisible.
However, I eventually realized that it was not one of my original assumptions that an event in a chain must repeat (or give rise to a different event) at each and every ksana. This at once made fractional rates possible even though the basic units of space and time are, in UET, indivisible. A ‘particle’ with a rate of 4/7 s0 /t0 could, for example, make a re-appearance four times out of every seven ksanas ─ and there are any number of ways that a ‘particle’ could have the same flat rate while not having the same re-appearance rhythm. 

Limit to unitary re-appearance rate

It is by no means obvious that it is legitimate to treat ‘space’ and ‘time’ equivalently as dimensions of a single entity known as ‘Space/Time’. A ‘distance’ in time is not just a distance in space transferred to a different axis and much of the confusion in contemporary physics comes from a failure to accept, or at the very least confront, this fact. One reason why the dimensions are not equivalent is that, although a spatial dimension such as length remains the same if we now add on width, the entire spatial complex must disappear if it is to give rise to a similar one at the succeeding moment in time ─ you cannot simply ‘add’ on another dimension to what is already there.
However, for the the time being I will follow accepted wisdom in treating a time distance on the same footing as a space distance. If this is so, it would seem that, in the case of an event-chain held together by causality, the causal influence emanating from the ‘kernel’ of one event capsule, and which brings about the selfsame event (or a different one) a ksana later in an equivalent spatial position, must traverse at least the ‘width’ or diameter of a space capsule, noted s0 (if the capsule is at rest). Why? Because if it does not at least get to the extremity of the first spatial capsule, a distance of ½ s0  and then get to the ‘kernel’ of the following one, nothing at all will happen and the event-chain will terminate abruptly.
This means that the ‘reappearance rate’ of an event in an event-chain must at least be 1/1 in absolute units, i.e. 1 s0 /t0 , one grid-space per ksana. Can it be greater than this? Could it, for example, be  2, 3 or 5 grid-spacesper ksana? Seemingly not. For if and when the ultimate event re-appears, say  5 ksanas later, the original causal impulse will have covered a distance of 5 s0   ( s0 being the diameter or spatial dimension of each capsule) and would have taken 5 ksanas to do  this. And so the space/time displacement rate would be the same (but not in this case the actual inter-event distances).
It is only the unitary rate, the distance/time ratio taken over a single ksana, that cannot be less (or more) than one grid-space per ksana : any fractional (but not irrational) re-appearance rate is perfectly conceivable provided it is spread out over several ksanas.  A re-appearance rate of m/n s0/t0  simply means that the ultimate event in question re-appears in an equivalent spatial position on the Locality m times every n ksanas where m/n ≤ 1. And there are all sorts of different ways in which this rate be achieved. For example, a re-appearance rate of 3/5 s0/t0 could be a repeating pattern such as


   ™˜™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™™Reappearance rates 1






and one pattern could change over into the other either randomly or, alternatively, according to a particular rule.
As one increases the difference between the numerator and the denominator, there are obviously going to be many more possible variations : all this could easily be worked out mathematically using combinatorial analysis. But note that it is the distribution of ™ and ˜ that matters since, once a re-appearance rhythm has begun, there is no real difference between a ‘vertical’ rate of  ™˜™˜ and ˜™˜™ ─ it all depends on where you start counting. Patterns only count as different if this difference is recognizable no matter where you start examining the sequence.
Why does all this matter? Because, each time there is a blank line, this means that the ultimate event in question does not make an appearance at all during this ksana, and, if we are dealing with large denominators, this could mean very large gaps indeed in an event chain. Suppose, for example, an event-chain had a re-appearance rate of 4/786. There would only be four appearances (black dots) in a period of 786 ksanas, and there would inevitably be very large blank sections of the Locality when the ultimate event made no appearance.

Lower Limit of re-creation rate 

Since, by definition, everything in UET is finite, there must be a maximum number of possible consecutive non-reappearances. For example, if we set the limit at, say, 20 blank lines, or 200 03 2000, this would mean that, each time this was observed, we could conclude that the event-chain had terminated. This is the UET equivalent  of the Principle of Spatio-Temporal Continuity and effectively excludes phenomena such as an ultimate event in an event-chain making its re-appearance a century later than its first appearance. This limit would have to be estimated on the  basis of experiments since I do not see how a specific value can be derived from theoretical considerations alone. It is tempting to estimate that this value would involve c* or a multiple of c* but this is only a wild guess ─ Nature does not always favour elegance and simplicity.
Such a rule would limit how ‘stretched out’ an event-chain can be temporally and, in reality , there may not after all be a hard and fast general rule  : the maximal extent of the gap could decline exponentially or in accordance with some other function. That is, an abnormally long gap followed by the re-appearance of an event, would decrease the possible upper limit slightly in much the same way as chance associations increase the likelihood of an event-chain forming in the first place. If, say, there was an original limit of a  gap of 20 ksanas, whenever the re-appearance rate had a gap of 19, the limit would be reduced to 19 and so on.
It is important to be clear that we are not talking about the phenomenon of ‘time dilation’ which concerns only the interval between one ksana and the next according to a particular viewpoint. Here, we simply have an event-chain ‘at rest’ and which is not displacing itself laterally at all, at any rate not from the viewpoint we have adopted.

Re-appearance Rate as an intrinsic property of an event-chain  

Since Galileo, and subsequently Einstein, it has become customary in physics to distinguish, not between rest and motion, but rather between unaccelerated motion and  accelerated motion. And the category of ‘unaccelerated motion’ includes all possible constant straight-line speeds including zero (rest). It seems, then,  that there is no true distinction to be made between ‘rest’ and motion just so long as the latter is motion in a straight line at a constant displacement rate. This ‘relativisation’ of  motion in effect means that an ‘inertial system’ or a particle at rest within an inertial system does not really have a specific velocity at all, since any estimated velocity is as ‘true’ as any other. So, seemingly, ‘velocity’ is not a property of a single body but only of a system of at least two bodies. This is, in a sense, rather odd since there can be no doubt that a ‘change of velocity’, an acceleration, really is a feature of a single body (or is it?).
So what to conclude? One could say that ‘acceleration’ has ‘higher reality status’ than simple velocity since it does not depend on a reference point outside the system. ‘Velocity’ is a ‘reality of second order’ whereas acceleration is a ‘reality of first order’. But once again there is a difference between normal physics and UET physics in this respect. Although the distinction between unaccelerated and accelerated motion is taken over into UET (re-baptised ‘regular’ and ‘irregular’ motion), there is in Ultimate Event Theory a new kind of ‘velocity’ that has nothing to do with any other body whatsoever, namely the event-chain’s re-appearance rate.
When one has spent some time studying Relativity one ends up wondering whether after all “everything is relative” and that  the universe is evaporating away even as we look it leaving nothing but a trail of unintelligible mathematical formulae. In Quantum Mechanics (as Heisenberg envisaged it anyway) the properties of a particular ‘body’ involve the properties of all the other bodies in the universe, so that there remain very few, if any, intrinsic properties that a body or system can possess. However, in UET, there is a reality safety net. For there are at least two  things that are not relative, since they pertain to the event-chain or event-conglomerate itself whether it is alone in the universe or embedded in the dense network of intersecting event-chains we view as matter. These two things are (1) the number of ultimate events in a given portion of an event-chain and (2) the re-appearance rate of events in the chain. These two features are intrinsic to every chain and have nothing to do with velocity or varying viewpoints or anything else.  To be continued SH

Note 1   This principle (Spatio-temporal Continuity) innocuous  though it may sound, has also had  extremely important social and political implications since, amongst other things, it led to the repeal of laws against witchcraft in the ‘advanced’ countries. For example, the new Legislative Assembly in France shortly after the revolution specifically abolished all penalties for ‘imaginary’ crimes and that included witchcraft. Why was witchcraft considered to be an ‘imaginary crime’? Essentially because it  violated the Principle of Spatio-Temporal Continuity. The French revolutionaries who drew the statue of Reason through the streets of Paris and made Her their goddess, considered it impossible to cause someone’s death miles away simply by thinking ill of them or saying Abracadabra. Whether the accused ‘confessed’ to having brought about someone’s death in this way, or even sincerely believed it, was irrelevant : no one had the power to disobey the Principle of Spatio-Temporal Continuity. The Principle got somewhat muddied  when science had to deal with electro-magnetism ─ Does an impulse travel through all possible intermediary positions in an electro-magnetic field? ─ but it was still very much in force in 1905 when Einstein formulated the Theory of Special Relativity. For Einstein deduced from his basic assumptions that one could not ‘send a message’ faster than the speed of light and that, in consequence,  this limited the speed of propagation of causality. If I am too far away from someone else I simply cannot cause this person’s death at that particular time and that is that. The Principle ran into trouble, of course,  with the advent of Quantum Mechanics but it remains deeply entrenched in our way of thinking about the world which is why alibis are so important in law, to take but one example. And it is precisely because Quantum Mechanics appears to violate the principle that QM is so worrisome and the chief reason why some of the scientists who helped to develop the theory such as Einstein himself, and even Schrodinger, were never happy with  it. As Einstein put it, Quantum Mechanics involved “spooky action at a distance” ─ exactly the same objection that the Cartesians had made to Newton. 

Note 2  Ideally, we would have a lighted three-dimensional framework flashing on and off and mark the successive appearances of the ‘object’ as, say, a red point of light comes on periodically when the lighted framework comes on.

Note 3 In principle, in the case of extremely high speed event-chains, these gaps should be detectable even today though the fact that such high speeds are involved makes direct observation difficult. 

Note 4 This is not how we specify an object’s position in ordinary conversation. As Bohm pertinently pointed out, we in effect speak in the language of topology rather than the language of co-ordinate geometry. We say such and such an object is ‘under’, ‘over’, ‘near’, ‘to the right of’ &c. some other well-known  prominent object, a Church or mountain when outside, a bookcase or fireplace when in a room.
Not only do coordinates not exist in Nature, they do not come at all naturally to us, even today. Why is this? Chiefly, I suspect because they are not only cumbersome but practically useless to a nomadic, hunting/food gathering life style and we humans spent at least 96% of our existence as hunter/gatherers. Exact measurement only becomes essential when human beings start to manufacture complicated objects and even then many craftsmen and engineers used ‘rules of thumb’ and ‘rough estimates’ well into the 19th century.